Pitfalls of Accelerated Approval: What Happens When Confirmatory Trials Fail?

The accelerated approval (AA) pathway was introduced in 1992 (in response to the AIDS epidemic) to shorten the FDA approval process for drugs to treat serious or life-threatening diseases or rare diseases where there is a high unmet medical need. AA allows for drugs to be approved on the basis of surrogate endpoints that are “reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit.”1 Please see Part 1 of this blog series for an introduction to the accelerated approval pathway and Part 2 for more information on how surrogate endpoints for accelerated approval are identified and validated.

Although AA can speed access to potentially lifesaving drugs years earlier than traditional approvals, the tradeoff for this quicker access is a period of uncertainty regarding the true efficacy and safety while confirmatory evidence is gathered. Confirmation of clinical benefit is often achieved but is not guaranteed.

In Part 3 of our blog series on AA, we will dive into a controversial aspect of the accelerated approval pathway: confirmatory studies.

What is a confirmatory study?

The FDA requires that drugs initially approved under AA are subject to postmarketing confirmatory trials that can directly confirm the clinical benefit predicted by the surrogate endpoint. Confirmatory studies are typically agreed on between the sponsor and FDA ahead of time and formally established as a postmarketing requirement (PMR) for continued approval.2 Usually PMRs for AA indications include large, phase 3 randomized studies with primary endpoints that assess direct clinical benefit. Overall survival, for example, is often used in oncology studies as a direct measure of clinical benefit.2

While straightforward in principle, designing confirmatory trials presents many practical challenges that can impede the completion of the trial and/or complicate the interpretation of the results. Most importantly, it is not always feasible to enroll patients in confirmatory trials once the drug is already on the market, particularly for very rare diseases. For this reason, sponsors may need to consider a randomized confirmatory trial in a clinical setting that differs from the approved indication, such as an earlier line of therapy or, for rare diseases, a less rigorous single-arm approach may be used. The nature of what evidence constitutes a confirmation of benefit remains a heavily debated topic that is outside of the scope of this article; however, some of these challenges were presented at a Friends of Cancer Research Annual Meeting in 2020.3

When a confirmatory study reaches its primary endpoints, this fulfills the PMR, and the clinical benefit is considered to be verified; at which point the AA is generally converted to a full approval. On the other hand, in cases where a confirmatory study fails to confirm clinical benefit, or an appropriate confirmatory study could not be conducted, the AA may be withdrawn by the FDA. The FDA is not required to withdraw the AA; however, there is no time limit for completion of confirmatory trails defined in legislation or regulatory guidance.

Conversion of AAs to full approvals: Is the glass half-full or half-empty?

Two separate studies found that approximately 50% of all AAs have successfully converted to full approval.

  • An investigation published in the British Medical Journal studied all 253 AAs granted by the FDA in the 28 years since the inception of the program in 1992, through 2020. Of these, 125 (49%) successfully confirmed clinical benefit, 44% had not yet completed confirmatory trials, and 6% had been withdrawn.4
  • In a study focusing only on oncology AAs, the record is slightly better. Out of 93 oncology indications granted AA between 1992 to 2017, 51 (55%) had fulfilled their PMR within a median of 3.4 years. Forty percent of oncology indications had not yet completed confirmatory trials, and 5% had been withdrawn from the market.5

From a “glass half-full” perspective, half of all drugs approved under the AA pathway are successful—delivering promising, life-saving drugs to patients years sooner than traditional approval pathways, with verification of clinical benefit confirmed in a timely manner. In this context, the 5-6% of AAs that were withdrawn demonstrate a commitment to removing AAs that fail to confirm benefit.

However, from the “glass half-empty” perspective, nearly half of AAs had not yet confirmed clinical benefit. In the case of more recent AAs, confirmatory trials may still be ongoing. However, a small number of AAs had not yet started a confirmatory trial or had  a failed confirmatory trial, yet they remained on the market. For critics, this is evidence that the FDA is allowing some AAs to “languish” in the pathway, without appropriate efforts to confirm clinical benefit. These critics believe that the number of AAs withdrawn should be much higher.

The most controversial situation with the AA pathway is the very small subset of AA drugs that have completed one or more confirmatory trials that failed to confirm clinical benefit, but the approval for that indication has not been withdrawn. These so-called “dangling approvals” often fall into a regulatory gray area, are a target of fierce criticism, and have been the subject of several FDA advisory committee meetings.

“Dangling” accelerated approvals: FDA advisory committee meetings

In April 2021, the FDA held a multi-day, multi-sponsor meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) to get expert advice on several immune-checkpoint inhibitors (“ICIs”) with dangling AAs. All the ICIs in question were PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. Each of these dangling AAs had failed to reach statistical significance on the endpoint of overall survival in one or more confirmatory trials. The FDA chose to use this meeting to publicly reevaluate these approvals. In the weeks leading up to the meeting, 4 of the indications were voluntarily withdrawn by the sponsors. Out of the 6 indications that were publicly reevaluated at the ODAC meeting, the panel voted against continued AA for 2 indications and voted in favor of maintaining AA for 4 indications. 

Importantly, in the cases where the AA indication was withdrawn, it wasn’t because of a lack of benefit, or even a failed confirmatory trial, but rather that the treatment landscape had evolved, so that other treatment options were available. In short, the urgent unmet need that had originally justified the AA in these cases, no longer existed.

FDA advisory committee meetings are often a clue as to how the FDA is thinking about regulatory policy and how they may make decisions in the future.

What does it mean when a confirmatory trial fails? The FDA weighs in…

When a confirmatory trial fails to meet its endpoints, these data cannot be used to confirm clinical benefit or fulfill the PMR. However, a failed trial is not necessarily evidence that the drug is ineffective. In a perspective article published in The New England Journal of Medicine shortly before the April 2021 ODAC meeting, Dr. Julia Beaver and Dr. Richard Pazdur, from the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence, wrote:

“The fact that a clinical trial did not meet its endpoints does not necessarily mean that the drug is ineffective. A failure to demonstrate efficacy might be attributable to the selection of the primary endpoint, the power calculation, hierarchical statistical testing procedures, biomarker selection, trial design, or an inability to select the patients most likely to have a response. If there are clear reasons why a trial may not have achieved its primary endpoint and an unmet medical need still exists, the FDA works with sponsors to identify subsequent clinical trials that could satisfy the accelerated approval requirement.”6 [emphasis added]

This perspective from the FDA provides an important clue into their thinking: unmet need is paramount. In many cases, drugs receive AA because there is an urgent unmet need. In these cases, the immediate removal of AA after a failed confirmatory trial could leave patients with severe or life-threatening diseases with no treatment options. So, while strict statistical requirements for fulfilling a PMR must be met, it is just as important for the FDA to weigh those criteria against the unmet medical need.

Conclusion

The AA pathway legislation allows for flexibility and discretion on the part of the FDA when enforcing PMRs for confirmatory studies. Proponents of AA, including the FDA itself, point out that this flexibility is necessary, given the complexity of these decisions and the need to balance benefit/risk with unmet need. Quoting the FDA, “the small percentage of drugs whose clinical benefit is ultimately not confirmed should be viewed not as a failure of accelerated approval but rather as an expected trade-off in expediting drug development that benefits patients with severe or life-threatening diseases.”6

However, critics believe there is too much flexibility in the pathway, resulting in arbitrary decisions that lack appropriate transparency, inappropriate use, and patients with serious diseases potentially being exposed to drugs that lack confirmed clinical benefit. Recently, these critics have called for reform of the AA pathway, and legislation is now being considered in Congress.

Coming next: Proposed reforms to the AA pathway

The AA pathway has far-reaching implications for patient access, coverage for new drugs under insurance plans and Medicare, and decisions made by sponsors in their clinical development strategy. In a future blog post, we will look in detail at proposed reforms that could impact the AA pathway and the surrounding regulatory landscape.  

Angela W. Corona, PhD
Scientific Director, ProEd Regulatory

Angela is a Scientific Director for ProEd Regulatory. She is responsible for helping sponsors navigate complex regulatory communications, such as FDA advisory committee meetings. She develops clinical and regulatory strategy along with high-quality scientific and medical content across a wide range of therapeutic and drug development areas. Angela received her PhD in Neuroscience from The Ohio State University and completed her postdoctoral training at Case Western Reserve University.

 


References

  1. US Food and Drug Administration. Expedited programs for serious conditions – drugs and biologics. May 2014. https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-documents/expedited-programs-serious-conditions-drugs-and-biologics
  2. For more information on the details of Postmarket Requirements (PMRs) for drugs approved under AA – an interested reader may wish to review the public PMR database maintained by the US Food and Drug Administration. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/pmc/index.cfm
  3. Friends of Cancer Research Working Group. Optimizing the use of accelerated approval. 2020. https://friendsofcancerresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/Optimizing_the_Use_of_Accelerated_Approval-2020.pdf
  4. Mahase E. FDA allows drugs without proven clinical benefit to languish for years on accelerated pathway. BMJ. 2021;374:n1898. https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1898.full
  5. Beaver JA, Howie LJ, Pelosof L, et al. A 25-year experience of US Food and Drug Administration accelerated approval of malignant hematology and oncology drugs and biologics: a review. JAMA Oncol. 2018;4(6):849-856. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.5618. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2673837
  6. Beaver JA and Pazdur R. “Dangling” accelerated approvals in oncology. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:e68. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2104846

Surrogate Endpoints for Accelerated Approval

Surrogate endpoints have been used for accelerated approval (AA) since the early 1990s, playing a vital role in getting therapies for serious conditions to patients sooner. The AA pathway was first created in 1992 to accelerate the approval of drugs intended to treat “serious conditions that fill an unmet medical need.” In the intervening 30+ years, surrogate endpoints have played a major role in oncology and rare disease clinical trials, but their appropriate use is still being debated in the literature. Most often that debate centers around whether an endpoint is a true surrogate that predicts clinical benefit in the clinical context in which it is being used.

What is a “surrogate”endpoint? How is it different from “clinical outcome”endpoint?

A “surrogate” endpoint is a biomarker, lab measurement, radiographic image, physical sign, or other measure that is “reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit” whereas a “clinical outcome” endpoint is one that “directly measures clinical benefit.” Importantly, the FDA definition of clinical benefit is how a patient feels, functions, or survives.

To illustrate the difference between surrogate and clinical endpoints, below are some oncology-specific examples:

Surrogate Endpoints Clinical Outcome Endpoint
Progression-Free Survival (PFS) Overall Survival (OS)
Objective Response Rate (ORR)
Duration of Response (DoR)

The FDA publishes a Surrogate Endpoint Table updated every 6 months and listing surrogate endpoints that can support approval of a drug or a biological product under both accelerated and traditional approval pathways.1 The FDA encourages development of “novel” surrogate endpoints; a novel endpoint can become established as a surrogate based on persuasive evidence that it predicts clinical benefit in the context of a specific disease and patient population. The FDA determines the acceptability of a surrogate endpoint on a case-by-case basis, dependent on context and influenced by the disease, patient population, therapeutic mechanism of action, and currently available treatments (ie, unmet need for new treatments). If a surrogate endpoint was previously used to support AA, but subsequent confirmatory trials consistently fail to demonstrate the expected clinical benefit, that surrogate endpoint should no longer be accepted for that use.

When is it appropriate to use a surrogate endpoint?

The main purpose for using a surrogate endpoint is to shorten clinical development timelines or improve the feasibility of clinical studies in rare diseases where the number of patients is limited and large, controlled studies are challenging. In many cases, a surrogate endpoint can be reached much sooner and with fewer patients than a clinical outcome endpoint such as overall survival (OS), which is a direct measure of clinical benefit. Sponsors must think about this in the context of the specific disease and indication for which they are developing the drug.

For example, in cancer patients with a long life expectancy, a surrogate endpoint such as progression-free survival (PFS) can provide a much earlier readout than a clinical outcome endpoint such as overall survival (OS). If PFS has been shown to correlate with OS in that specific disease and indication, there is a good chance that the confirmatory trial would be able to show an OS benefit. However, in some cases this can be challenging.

In the context of rare genetic diseases, for example, the surrogate endpoint is often a biomarker that can be easily measured with precision and that is reasonably likely to predict how patients feel or function. Because clinical measures of how patients function over time can be difficult to assess with precision, they often require much larger studies to demonstrate a clinically meaningful effect. For example, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, rather than measuring functional outcomes such as ability to walk, which can vary from one day to the next, researchers will often use a surrogate endpoint such as quantitative measurements of dystrophin protein expression.

In severe respiratory diseases, measures of lung function are often used as a surrogate to predict how well the patient can perform activities of daily living, which can often be difficult to measure with precision. These few examples illustrate how surrogate endpoints can be used to facilitate clinical research.

How much time is saved by using these endpoints?

The amount of time saved by using a surrogate endpoint is disease dependent. For example, use of PFS rather than OS in breast cancer can save almost a full year, whereas the use of response rate (RR) versus OS can save 19 months.2 It all depends on the natural history of the disease and the nature of the endpoint being studied. So, while the use of surrogate endpoints can save time on the front end, and while patients will benefit sooner, the tradeoff is that the sponsor must invest in the development of an additional post-approval confirmatory trial—and there is no guarantee that a direct clinical benefit will be confirmed. Thus, there is a chance that the patient might be taking a drug that turns out not to help them in the long run.

What are “validated” surrogate endpoints?

A “validated” surrogate endpoint meets a higher standard and can be used to support full approval. This requires that the endpoint be “supported by a clear mechanistic rationale and clinical data providing strong evidence that an effect on the surrogate endpoint predicts a specific clinical benefit.”3

Two examples include:

  • HbA1c predicting improvements in long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Virologic suppression of HIV as a proxy for preventing progression to AIDS

More than 75% of approvals that used a surrogate endpoint came through the traditional pathway using a validated surrogate endpoint.3 The AA pathway does not require the use of validated surrogate endpoints.

Aaron Csicseri, PharmD, Aaron has 10+ years’ experience as a Senior Scientific Director, Medical Director, or Clinical Strategist within the medical communication field. He is responsible for overseeing and developing high-quality scientific and medical content that incorporates key communication objectives and accurate representation of data. Aaron is experienced in the development of strategic scientific communication platforms, strategic publication planning and implementation, medical expert outreach and engagement, guiding and executing medical education programs, and support for medical affairs. He received his PharmD from the University of Buffalo.

 

Sources:

  1. US FDA. Table of Surrogate Endpoints That Were the Basis of Drug Approval or Licensure. Updated February 28, 2022. Accessed March 8, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-resources/table-surrogate-endpoints-were-basis-drug-approval-or-licensure
  2. Chen EY, Joshi SK, Tan A, Prasad V. Estimation of study time reduction using surrogate end points rather than overall survival in oncology clinical trials. JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179(5):642-647.
  3. US FDA. Surrogate Endpoint Resources for Drug and Biologic Development. Updated July 24, 2018. Accessed March 8, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-resources/surrogate-endpoint-resources-drug-and-biologic-development

Introduction to the Accelerated Approval Pathway

The FDA has developed several mechanisms to speed drugs to market when a compelling medical need exists including Accelerated Approval (AA), Priority Review, Fast Track, and Breakthrough Therapy Designation. Accelerated Approval is an important regulatory pathway that provides patients with earlier access to treatments for serious medical conditions when there is an unmet medical need. This is the first post in a 3‑part series on the AA Pathway. Herein, I’ll focus on how this pathway is used to bring drugs to market and highlight some of the key issues surrounding it.

The AA Pathway was created in 1992 in response to the AIDS crisis and was codified in 2012 under the Food and Drug Administration Safety Innovations Act (FDASIA) in an effort to bring potentially life-saving drugs to market more quickly. The majority of drugs granted AA have been for AIDS, rare diseases, and cancer. Over the past 10 years, there has been a steady increase in the number of New Drug Applications (NDAs) seeking AA (Figure1,2); this increase has been driven largely by immune checkpoint inhibitors, which have transformed the treatment of many types of cancer.

Figure: Novel Drugs Approved Using the Accelerated Approval Pathway.

Data sources: Darrow JJ, et al. JAMA. 2020 (through 2017);1 FDA CDER reports 2017-20212

How does Accelerated Approval work?

Under normal or traditional FDA approval pathways, a drug must show evidence of clinical benefit based on endpoints that measure how a patient feels, functions, or survives. In contrast, AA allows FDA to grant a drug a “conditional” approval based on its effect on a surrogate or an intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit.3 (We’ll share more on this in part 2 of this series.) In some cases, AA can shave years off the clinical development timeline. Under the same law, the FDA requires sponsors to conduct a confirmatory clinical trial in the postmarketing setting to confirm that the drug does provide meaningful clinical benefit, and FDA can withdraw approval if further trials fail to verify the predicted clinical benefit.

Pros of the Accelerated Approval Pathway

The majority of drugs granted AA are for rare diseases, where the unmet need is great (90% of rare diseases have no approved therapy),4 and for oncologic indications where the disease is often life-threatening. In the case of rare diseases where patients are few and far between, it can be extremely challenging to conduct controlled clinical trials of sufficient size to demonstrate clinical benefit using traditional endpoints. The use of surrogate endpoints under an AA may be the only feasible path to approval; however, it can often be difficult subsequently to confirm clinical benefit in the postmarketing setting. In the case of oncology drugs, clinicians want to have access to promising new therapies for patients who have limited time to wait for the latest, potentially life-saving innovation, so speed to market becomes paramount.

Cons of the Accelerated Approval Pathway

The nature of the AA Pathway allows drugs to be marketed for a given indication before clinical benefit has actually been demonstrated using validated clinical endpoints. Although a surrogate endpoint must be reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, this anticipated benefit must be verified in a confirmatory trial.

FDA prefers that a well-designed confirmatory trial be planned or underway at the time of AA, but there is no action enforceable by the FDA to require completion of confirmatory trials. According to a recent investigation in the British Medical Journal, nearly half of the drugs granted AA have not confirmed clinical benefit,5 and only 16 AAs have been withdrawn. This calls into question whether some of the drugs approved through the AA pathway are actually providing the promised clinical benefit to patients. That being said, there are many situations, particularly in rare diseases, where it can be difficult to complete confirmatory trials.

Finally, even more problematic, is what to do when confirmatory trials fail. In some cases, FDA will convene an advisory committee meeting to discuss whether the unmet need still exists and whether additional ongoing trials may confirm clinical benefit. (We’ll share more on this in part 3 of this series.)

Conclusion

While confirmatory trials can be difficult to complete, the AA pathway has been used to approve an increasing number of novel drugs in the past 10 years and remains an important regulatory pathway that provides patients with earlier access to treatments for serious medical conditions. Stay tuned for our next installment, which will explore the use of surrogate endpoints in Accelerated Approvals.

Jackie Orabone, PhD, helps clients prepare for FDA Advisory Committee meetings by combining her scientific expertise and research knowledge in immunology with over 2 years of medical communications agency experience. Connect with Jackie on LinkedIn.

 

References:

  1. Darrow JJ, Avorn J, Kesselheim, AS. FDA approval and regulation of pharmaceuticals, 1983-2018. JAMA. 2020;323(2):164-176.
  2. US FDA. New Drugs at FDA: CDER’s New Molecular Entities and New Therapeutic Biological Products. Current as of January 27, 2022. Accessed March 3, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-approval-process-drugs/new-drugs-fda-cders-new-molecular-entities-and-new-therapeutic-biological-products
  3. US FDA. Accelerated Approval. Current as of January 4, 2018. Accessed March 3, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/patients/fast-track-breakthrough-therapy-accelerated-approval-priority-review/accelerated-approval
  4. Huron J. New report finds medical treatments for rare diseases account for only 11% of US drug spending; nearly 80% of orphan products treat rare diseases exclusively. March 4, 2021; National Organization for Rare Disorders. Accessed March 3, 2022. https://rarediseases.org/new-report-finds-medical-treatments-for-rare-diseases-account-for-only-11-of-us-drug-spending-nearly-80-of-orphan-products-treat-rare-diseases-exclusively/#:~:text=Approximately%207%2C000%20known%20rare%20diseases,rare%20diseases%20have%20no%20treatment
  5. Mahase E. FDA allows drugs without proven clinical benefit to languish for years on accelerated pathway. BMJ. 2021;374:n1898.

Responding to FDA Information Requests: It Comes Down to Clarity of Messaging and Understanding the Therapeutic Landscape

No matter how well you have prepared your New Drug Application (NDA) or Biologic License Agreement (BLA) submission for the FDA, questions posed regarding the development of your product will arise. These are presented in the form of Information Requests (IRs) and Discipline Review Letters (DRLs). The FDA Guidance to Industry from the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) outlines how the FDA uses these communications to obtain clarifying information to assist in reviewing submissions. Well-crafted responses to IRs and DRLs are critical in replying to regulators and keeping the review of your application on track.

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Do Decentralized Clinical Trials Hold the Keys to Future Patient Focused Drug Development?

There’s a lot of buzz around the concept of decentralized clinical trials, and rightly so, given the lessons learned from our experience with clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Decentralized trials are executed through telemedicine and mobile or local healthcare providers.  They rely on technology (or medical devices) and information sharing to execute a study without the involvement of a large centralized clinic.  In a post-COVID world, drug development will likely employ more decentralized trials to reduce the time and cost of trial programs.

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Extending Asset Reach and Protecting Your IP Through the 505(b)(2) Pathway

Developing a novel pharmaceutical product from discovery to market launch can take up to 10 years and cost as much as $1 billion dollars1. The traditional 505(b)(1) approach to drug development involves a linear progression starting with nonclinical pharmacology, toxicology, and other PK studies, and typically culminates with large randomized phase 3 trials. This stepwise progression is time consuming and expensive, but essential to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of new molecules and gain FDA approval. Naturally, the cost associated with market entry discourages some smaller companies and restricts their focus to regulatory strategies with a lower financial barrier. The 505(b)(2) regulatory approval pathway presents a tangible opportunity for pharmaceutical companies to gain market entry and market share for a capital investment of $10-100 MM and 2-6 years of time. To put this into perspective, in 2019, approximately 65 505(b)(2) applications were filed in the United States compared with 48 505(b)(1) applications. In two parts, I will explore the utility of the 505(b)(2) pathway and offer insight into how both large and small pharma companies can capitalize on the innovative nature of this strategy.

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COVID-19 Vaccines: When Will the Pandemic End?

As Pfizer, Moderna, and other pharma companies prepare to seek emergency authorization for their SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the FDA has laid out a roadmap designed to ensure appropriate scientific rigor and help engender public trust. That plan was the subject of a special meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) on October 22, 2020, where experts discussed 2 critical FDA guidance documents that provide a blueprint for development and approval of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. That blueprint is at the center of a massive government effort to quickly and safely speed vaccines to the American public and bring the pandemic to an end.

Members of the VRBPAC, with expertise in infectious disease, epidemiology, and vaccine development, focused on issues around the FDA standards for safety and effectiveness that will support Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of vaccine candidates. They discussed the need to continue the phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials to completion after an EUA is granted. They considered how the vaccines will be rolled out to the American public, and they raised concerns about whether the public will embrace the vaccines and roll up their sleeves.

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PNAS Spearheads Effort to Streamline Authorship Transparency

Authorship is a hot topic in the scientific and medical publishing world. Who qualifies as an author? Who is the senior author? What are the responsibilities of the corresponding author? Opinions vary across disciplines and cultures. Whereas medical publications generally follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf),1 academic publications may follow other guidance, or none at all. Is there a way to impose universal authorship criteria and quantify the work of authors so that their actual contributions can be tracked, giving them more than just their name on an article in the modern publish-or-perish environment?

A recent article by McNutt et al2 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) seeks to create a framework for doing just that. As part of the global push toward greater transparency, with the goal of increasing integrity and trust in scientific publications, this article proposes that journals develop standardized authorship requirements and reporting, documented through ORCID identifiers (https://orcid.org) and the CRediT system (http://docs.casrai.org/CRediT).

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What the New ICMJE Requirement for Data Sharing Statements Really Means for Data Sharing

As of July 1, 2018, manuscripts submitted to International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-member journals must be accompanied by a data sharing statement. What is the new requirement, how did it evolve, and what does it mean for data sharing?

In January 2016, the ICMJE proposed that authors of all clinical trial manuscripts published in member journals share de-identified individual-patient data (IPD) underlying their results within 6 months of publication.1 The proposal included data in tables, figures, appendices, and supplemental materials. The ICMJE invited comments on its proposal and a firestorm ensued. Although many individuals and groups applauded the ICMJE proposal, others raised legitimate concerns. Some were concerned about inappropriate analyses of data without statistical rigor, and authors were concerned about competition and losing control and/or credit for their work. Others voiced concerns about the practical aspects of how to share the huge amounts of data generated by some studies, particularly large, phase 3, randomized trials. Still others raised persistent concerns about patients’ right to privacy, particularly in the rare disease setting, where, despite de-identification efforts, patients still might be identifiable. Continue reading

The Target Product Profile—Your Blueprint for Drug Development

When utilized to its full potential, the Target Product Profile (TPP) is a dynamic, living document that ensures all stakeholders—clinical, regulatory, quality and manufacturing, commercial, market access, and medical affairs—are working from the same blueprint. Unfortunately, the TPP often has a bad rap within industry because many people think it is too rigid for today’s drug development environment. But often that reflects a failure to truly collaborate or a tendency to let the TPP get stale. To be effective, the TPP must be continually updated based on changes in the data and the competitive landscape. When companies take a balanced approach to developing the TPP and have a dynamic process that allows them to monitor and adapt it, as needed, they build agility into their drug development program that allows them to make critical go/no-go decisions or course corrections when necessary.

By using the TPP to ensure everyone is on the same page, drug developers can avoid costly delays when, for example, manufacturing isn’t ready to scale up to commercial production when the phase 3 data comes in ahead of schedule. Keeping a close eye on the evolving therapeutic landscape helps the development team anticipate what data will be needed to support labeling claims that may serve as a key differentiator from the competition and provide added value in the marketplace. So let’s look at how a dynamic TPP—one that is proactively updated—can help achieve the critical success factors introduced in the last installment. Continue reading